Texas, known as the Lone Star State, is an expansive and the second largest U.S. state by both area and population.
Texas has diverse climate types that range from arid and semi-arid in the west to humid and subtropical in the east. The huge expanse of the state creates various weather patterns based on location such as the north and northern panhandle, west, east, south, and the coastal regions. Texas shares borders with New Mexico in the west, Oklahoma in the north, Louisiana in the east, the Gulf of Mexico in the southeast, and the Mexican states of Tamaulipas, Chihuahua, Coahuila, and Nuevo Leon in the southwest.
Historically four major industries shaped the Texas economy prior to World War II: cattle and bison, cotton, timber, and oil. Before and after the U.S. Civil War the cattle industry, which Texas came to dominate, was a major economic driver for the state, thus creating the traditional image of the Texas cowboy. In the later 19th century cotton and lumber grew to be major industries as the cattle industry became less lucrative. It was ultimately, though, the discovery of major petroleum deposits (Spindletop in particular) that initiated an economic boom which became the driving force behind the economy for much of the 20th century.
Texas developed a diversified economy and high tech industry in the mid-20th century. As of 2015, it is second on the list of the most Fortune 500 companies with 54. With a growing base of industry, the state leads in many industries, including tourism, agriculture, petrochemicals, energy, computers and electronics, aerospace, and biomedical sciences. Texas has led the U.S. in state export revenue since 2002 and has the second-highest gross state product. If Texas were a sovereign state, it would have the 10th largest economy in the world.